Jewish-Languages Mailing List

February 2002

Date: Tue, 5 Feb 2002 16:14:05 +0900
From: Tsuguya Sasaki <ts @>
Subject: Jewish Language Research Website

I am pleased to inform you that the revised version of the Jewish
Language Research Website is ready for your browsing at the following
new URI, though there are some parts which are still under construction:

I did my best to convert the entries you had submitted to Sarah Benor,
which were later forwarded to me, into webpages while keeping the
consistent format explained briefly on the following page, hence
rearranging, adding or subtracting part of your bibliographical items:

I apologize to you in advance for any possible typo or mistake that
might have crept into the webpages due to my understanding or mere
ignorance. Those parts of the bibliographical information that were
missing in the original submissions, such as the original titles of the
Hebrew publications, places of publication, publishers, etc. - are
marked with a question mark. Should you find any typo or mistake,
please e-mail Sarah Benor at sbenor @ /
editor @ or your humble cyber-servant at
ts @ / webmaster @ We will do
our best to correct it at our earliest convenience.

As you may notice on the website, e-mail addresses have no hyperlinks.
This was done on purpose in order to protect your privacy though it may
cause some inconvenience as you have to cut/copy and past someone's
e-mail address to contact him or her from the site. As a further
precautionary measure I also coded all the non-hyperlinked e-mail
address on the website using the so-called character entity for @, which
is &#64;.

I am sure that you receive a number of unsolicited commercial e-mail
(commonly known as spam e-mail) messages. The above two measures
were taken to prevent spambots that "harvest" e-mail addresses from
detecting ours and sending us spam messages. They simply identify
every character string that contains a mail hyperlink and/or @ as an
e-mail address. It is true that with these measures the convenience of
just clicking to e-mail someone is sacrificed, as was said above, but
the number of potential spam messages we may receive through our
website will be greatly reduced.

Our website is probably among the few in which various scripts encoded
in Unicode (UTF-8), including the Hebrew script, are mixed. As for web
building, more emphasis was put on the proper structural markup of the
web documents rather than abusing HTML/XHTML for physical layout. The
whole site was validated according to the DTD it uses, so it is "glat
kosher" in terms of HTML/XHTML. In the ideal world, this is supposed to
mean that all the standards-compliant browsers can render our website
properly, but in reality some old browsers fail to support the
bidirectional algorithm to display text strings in Hebrew (and Arabic)
scripts properly. Netscape Navigator 4.x is probably the most notorious
among these browsers that are not compliant with the web standards.
Since its share in the browser market is dwindling to the benefit of the
online community, I have decided not to accomodate our site to this
buggy browser-shmowser, and thus make it "treyf".

You must be really patient if you have read this message until the end.
;-) Thank you very much for your attention.

Tsuguya Sasaki

Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2002 08:48 -0800
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: Announcement: New Issue of *Pe'Amim: Studies in Oriental Jewry*

This is from the Sephardi/Mizrahi Studies Caucus list. Note especially the
last article - about language.

Announcement: New Issue of *Pe'Amim: Studies in Oriental Jewry*

From: Michael Glatzer <mahonzvi @>
Date: Wednesday, February 6, 2002 11:57 PM

*Peamim - Studies in Oriental Jewry*, No. 89 (Autumn 2001), 176 pp.

Ben-Zvi Institute, POB 7660 Jerusalem 91076


Editor: Dr. Avriel Bar-Levav

Most of the articles in this issue of Pe'amim are devoted to the history and
culture of the Karaite Jews.

"Karaites and the Orient - Trends in the Study of Karaites and Karaism"

Haggai Ben-Shammai discusses Karaites and Karasim in the context of the
research on Oriental Jewry, reviewing trends in the study of Karaism in the
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. He describes the development of major
collections of Karaite manuscripts in European collections in the nineteenth
century, the impact of the Cairo Geniza on the study of Karaism, publication
of texts by leading Karaite figures and the first monographs on the subject
and the possibilities and prospects of this research in the future.

Professor Ben-Shammai, chairman of the Ben-Zvi Institute, teaches in the
Department of Arabic Language and Literature at the Hebrew University of

"Karaites in Lithuania and in Volhynia-Galicia until the Eighteenth Century"

Golda Ahiezer and Dan Shapira survey the appearance of Karaite communities
in Eastern Europe and their development. The article reveals new sources,
presents the conflicting legends regarding their arrival in Lithuania and
Galicia and raises various possibilities regarding the origin of the
Karaites in these regions. The article also reviews the most important
Karaite communities in Volhynia and Galicia and the literary output of
Karaite scholars in the area.

Ms. Ahiezer is a research student in the Department of Jewish History at the
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and is engaged in research at the Ben-Zvi

Dr. Shapira teaches in the Department of History, Philosophy and Jewish
Studies at the Open University.

"Yefet ben Eli's Translation of the Book of Obadiah"

Meira Polliack and Eliezer Schlossberg present a critical, annotated edition
of the Judeo-Arabic translation of the Book of Obadiah by the Karaite Yefet
ben Eli, who lived in Jerusalem in the second half of the tenth century. In
the opinion of the writers Yefet played a key role in the development of
Karaite Biblical exegesis, which had an influence on Rabbinite commentaries
written in all Muslim lands, and particularly in Spain. In their commentary
they provide Yefet's translation with textual variants and a Hebrew
translation of his interpretation.

Dr. Polliack teaches in the Bible Department of Tel Aviv University.

Dr. Schlossberg is chairman of the Department of Arabic at Bar-Ilan

"Order and Meaning in Root Letters: On the Character of the Seventh Part of
Kitab al-Mustamil by Abu-al-Faraj Hârûn"

Aharon Maman discusses the seventh part of Kitab al-Mustamil ("The
Comprehensive Book") by the Karaite grammarian Abu al-Faraj Hârûn ben
al-Faraj, one of the leading figures in the Karaite community of Jerusalem
in the eleventh century. In this section of the book the Karaite grammarian
presents a list of anagrammatic Hebrew roots. According to the writer the
list was meant to illustrate the importance and significance of the order of
root letters: The root changes its meaning when the order of the letters is

Professor Maman teaches in the Department of Hebrew Language and heads the
Center for the Study of Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem.

"The Karaite as the "Other" Jew"

Daniel J. Lasker discusses the image of the Karaites, and the various uses
of the term "Karaite" in polemic literature. He points out that the groups
"accused" of Karaism included Marranos, Sabbateans, Reform, Conservative,
Ultra-Orthodox and others. In his conclusion he suggests an explanation for
this phenomenon.

Professor Lasker is the Norbert Blechner Professor of Jewish Values and
teaches in the Department of Jewish Thought at Ben-Gurion University of the

"The Central Committee of the Zionist Organization of Teheran - the First
National Institution of the Jews of Iran (1917-1931)"

Meir Sasson discusses the Central Committee of the Zionist Organization of
Teheran and its activities from 1917 to 1931. As the first nation-wide
institution of the Jews of Iran, it dealt with such matters as defense,
aliya, education and contacts with the World Zionist Organization. The
importance of the committee goes beyond the history of Zionism alone,
shedding light on communal organization.

Mr. Sasson is a research student in the Institute of Contemporary Jewry at
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

"Language and Languages - the Hebrew Lexicon of Jewish Communities"

The Late Professor Shlomo Morag wrote an article on the rationale behind the
work of the Center for Jewish Languages and Literatures at the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, which he founded. It is published here posthumously
with the help of his student, Professor Aharon Maman. The article deals with
the influence of Hebrew on the lexicon of Jewish languages, mainly in the
East, illustrating the literary and cultural basis of Hebrew words that
appear in Jewish languages in a new context, occasionally unexpected.

Professor Morag, who was awarded the Israel Prize for the study of the
Hebrew language, taught in the Department of Hebrew Language at the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem and was chairman of the Ben-Zvi Institute.


Professor Haggai Ben-Shammai responds to an article in *Pe'amim* 88 by Meir
Havazelet and Uri Melammed.


Boaz Shoshan reviews *In the Kingdom of Ishmael in the Geonic Period* by
Moshe Gil

Date: Fri, 8 Feb 2002 06:36 -0800
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: Colloquium on the Sociology of Language and Religion

This call for papers was posted to Linguist List. It seems like there are
several topics that could be of interest to Jewish language scholars.


 13.342, Calls: Sociology of Language

 1) From: Tope Omoniyi (PhD) <t.omoniyi @>
 Subject: Call for Additional Papers:The Sociology of Language and Religion Colloquium

Date: Mon, 11 Feb 2002 18:11 -0800
From: James Ward <jamesward @>
Subject: Introduction and query


My name is James Ward. I am an amateur scholar (a positive
categorization!) in the field of Jewish languages, which I have been
studying for the past two and a half years or so. My academic
background is in languages and literatures, and also history and
religious studies. I majored in Russian and German at the University of
Tulsa, and concentrated on Tibetan language and area studies at Indiana
University for one year at the graduate level. Now I test dirt for a
geotechnical laboratory! Nonetheless, I have an unaffiliated
"journeyman's" slightly defensive notion that such people can contribute
to their chosen subjects in a worthwhile manner. Naturally I urge you
to share in this view!

What a pleasant surprise it was to discover the existence of this list
and your new website! As similar internet searches a year or so ago
came up with nothing so encouraging, I was not expecting such progress
to have been made in the electronic dissemination of information and
possibilities for communication within mere months. Congratulations and
gratitude for having made this growth possible!

I must still classify myself as a beginner in the study of Jewish
languages. Certainly my study of German has rendered learning Yiddish
easier perhaps than it would be for someone with no experience with this
language family, but I have found that there is much to be unlearned as
well. At first, however, Ladino captured my imagination in a very
exciting way. As far as I can reconstruct it with my sieve of a memory,
I must have stumbled upon Ladino materials while searching for Syriac
books at the UCLA library. I wish I could convey to you the thrill of
taking the Me'am Loez off the shelf and being able to read "En el
prinsipiyo...!" And then to see bound newspapers from Istanbul of all
places in Spanish and written in the Hebrew letters! But surely you
have experienced this thrill yourselves in one way or another. My
Central Asian studies also led me to an interest in Judeo-Persian,
particularly of the modern variety, although as yet I have only really
tried to read a brief passage in a polyglot phrasebook made for
immigrants to Palestine around the turn of the century.

Now for my question: The usage of the Hebrew alphabet to read and write
in local vernaculars would seem to be practically unparalleled. The
only other instance of such practices that I can cite, second-hand, is
from a book called Ottoman Turkish Conversation Grammar (Method Gaspey
Otto Sauer), in which the author states that Greeks and Armenians used
their own alphabets to write Turkish. Does anyone know of any other
instances in which communities used their own alphabets to write the
languages of a dominant social group? And if not, does the widespread
nature of this practice among Jewish communities perhaps indicate that
the Greek and Armenian communities borrowed this practice from the
Jewish? Or can the antiquity of all of these peoples (and their
literary cultures) with respect to their contemporary rulers account for
this practice in a completely independent manner in each instance?

Once again, my thanks for all of your efforts in creating this network.
Well done indeed!


James Ward
jamesward @

Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2002 09:35 -0800
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: using different alphabets

Hello, James, and welcome to the list. Your question about alphabets is a
good one for discussion. Jews are certainly not the only group that has
used its own alphabet for a language that is usually written in another
alphabet. Norman Stillman has presented a paper comparing Jewish languages
with Muslim languages, and he pointed out that Muslim languages are often
written in the Arabic alphabet. We see this in coutries where Muslims are
the majority, like Iran and pre-Attaturk Turkey, but we also see it in
places where Muslims are a minority, like China. Mozarabic, a romance
language in the middle ages, was written in Arabic characters and
influenced by Arabic. In addition, I remember reading something similar
about Yupik, a language spoken in Alaska. Various groups of speakers have
written this language in Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, depending which
church they belong to (influenced by missionaries). Similarly, Hindi
(India) and Urdu (Pakistan) are mutually intelligible, and they are
differentiated partly by their scripts, which are based on religion. I
imagine that there are instances of this all around the world. Does anyone
know about others? Please correct me if any of the above information is

Sarah Bunin Benor
Stanford University

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 01:51 +0100
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @>
Subject: using different alphabets: aljamiado

Hello James!

> Does anyone know of any other instances in which communities used
> their own alphabets to write the languages of a dominant social group?

I agree with Sarah that the use of the Arabic script to write a local
language is very common in Islamic communities. I think this phenomenon
is comparable to Jewish languages in so far as in both cases a local
language is written in Arabic/Hebrew script because of the religious and
cultural prestige of that script within the group that uses it.

But as far as I know, in most of these cases (Turkish before Atatürk,
Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Malay written in Jawi script, Tatar and
Circassian until the 1920s, Dungan (a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in
Kyrgystan) until 1952, to a lesser extent Hausa and Swahili etc.), the
group using the Arabic script is either the dominant social group or
adopts not the language but the script of a dominant group (or neither
one nor the other). In the case of Yupik, I think the Yupiks have adopted
not the language but the scripts of two different dominant groups. But I
believe you specifically wanted to know about minorities who have adopted
the language of a dominant group but kept their own script.

One example I can think of is the case of aljamiado (the language of the
moriscos). After the end of the reconquista of the Iberian peninsula in
1492, the Arabic population was forced to either convert to Christianity
or to leave the country. The newly baptized Arabs were called cristianos
nuevos or moriscos. Although they were officially Christians, they were
only superficially christianised and continued to practise Islam in
secret. They also didn't merge with the Christian Spanish population,
but always remained a distinct, unassimilated group until their
expulsion in 1609-1614 (at that time, an estimated 270.000 moriscos were

The moriscos adopted the Spanish language of the dominant group (or
Portuguese, respectively) but continued to use the Arabic script. Most
surviving texts are from Castilia and from Aragón and were written in
the second half of the 16th century. Their content is usually of a
religious nature, e.g. they contain prayers, Koran fragments and
summaries, calendar calculation, liturgy, but also magical formulas,
medical recipes and legends.

Most of the texts are vocalized, and there are some graphemic features
specific to aljamiado, e.g. Spanish consonant sounds for which no sign
exists in the Arabic script are often rendered by tashdid (consonant
doubling). In the Spanish aljamiado texts, the language is usually
Castilian (not Aragonese or Catalan, for example), which can be
explained with the fact that most moriscos originated from Andalucia,
a region that has been completely hispanicized after the reconquista,
and only later were forced to move to Aragón and Catalonia, where they
didn't adopt the regional languages.

There are apparently no Arabic influences in the phonology and
morphology of the aljamiado texts, whereas in their syntax they often
reproduce Arabic structures (e.g relative clause, nominal clause, verbal
congruence etc.), and there are also many Arabic loanwords, mostly from
the religious sphere (e.g. alqibla "direction of prayer", halâl "allowed
according to religious prescriptions"), but also for non-religious
concepts used in the context of a religious text (e.g. albahar "the
sea"). The Arabic loanwords are morphologically integrated into the
Romance text - for example, the adverb of halâl is halâlmente.

If you want to read more about aljamiado, try to find books and articles
by Alvaro Galmés de Fuentes, Ottmar Hegyi, Reinhold Kontzi, Christina
Köster, Ana Labarta and Consuelo López-Morillas.

Out of memory and from what I have available at my desk, here are a few
unsorted bibliographical indications:

Galmés de Fuentes, Álvaro et al., Glosario de voces aljamiado-moriscas,
Oviedo: Biblioteca Árabo-Románica 1994.

Galmes de Fuentes, Álvaro (ed.), Actas del coloquio internacional sobre
literatura aljamiada y morisca, Madrid: Gredos 1978.

Hegyi, Ottmar, Cinco leyendas y otros relatos moriscos, Madrid: Gredos

Hegyi, Ottmar, Sprache im Grenzgebiet zwischen Islam und Christentum:
Die Aljamiadoliteratur, in: Lüdtke, Jens (ed.), Romania Arabica.
Festschrift für Reinhold Kontzi zum 70. Geburtstag, Tübingen: Narr 1996.

Kontzi, Reinhold, Das Zusammentreffen der arabischen Welt mit der
romanischen und seine sprachlichen Folgen, in: Kontzi, Reinhold (ed.),
Substrate und Superstrate in den romanischen Sprachen, Darmstadt 1982.

Federico Corriente, Arabe andalusí y lenguas romances, Madrid: MAPFRE

Article "aljamía" in: Kramers, J. H. et al. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of
Islam, Leiden: Brill (2)1954.

I am not completely sure, but I suppose that volume 7 of Günter Holtus,
et al. (eds.), Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik (LRL). Tübingen: Max
Niemeyer 1998 will also contain an article on aljamiado - this one might
be the best starting point.

I hope this helps!

Best regards


Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 01:56 +0100
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @>
Subject: using different alphabets: aljamiado (2)


I have found the reference to the article in the Lexikon der
Romanistischen Linguistik, which I mentioned at the end of my last e-mail,
and I can recommend it as a general introduction:

Reinhold Kontzi, Arabisch und Romanisch, in: Holtus, Günter et al. (eds.),
Lexikon der Romanistischen Linguistik, volume 7, Tübingen: Max Niemeyer
1998, 328-347.



Date: Wed, 13 Feb 2002 22:12 -0800
From: James Ward <jamesward @>
Subject: scripts

Thank you, Sarah and Marc, for your responses to my question, and thanks
again to those who have written to me individually.

I completely forgot about the writing of Spanish in Arabic script when I
asked my question! It is very good to have such a wealth of
bibliographical information about this. I am pleased to know that many
more of these sources have survived than I realized-- so far I have only
seen a transcribed compilation of legends on Biblical subjects.

This idea occurred to me last night: Is it possible that the
limitations of literacy in the medieval world acted as a "receptive
space" for the use of the Hebrew alphabet among the Jewish communities?
Since the practice of reading and writing then was less widespread and
somewhat restricted to elites, and since the Jewish communities might
very well have been in the forefront of literacy on a community-wide
level, maybe there was no real "negative pressure" on the use of this
script coming from generalized (what we might call "national" these
days) usage on the part of the Christian or Muslim literate circles.

If possible, then this could be connected with the following idea.
Maybe Ladino and Yiddish achieved their longevity partly from this
cause: they moved from mutually-intelligible speech situations in Spain
and Germany into the foreign speech situations of Russia (and Lithuania
and Poland) and the Ottoman Empire, where they became part of a
recognized "multi-national minority" structure. Meanwhile, in France
and Italy and elsewhere, the spread of literacy with the advent of
printing put assimilative (is that a word?) pressure on communities
which had been using the Hebrew alphabet to conform to more standardized
national practices.

Please let me know what you think about this. I find it rather an
exciting group of thoughts.

Thanks again!

jamesward @

Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 07:21 -0800
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: scripts and literacy

James: I agree that literacy is an important factor in the use of various
scripts. In fact, contemporary Jewish languages, such as the Jewish
English of Orthodox Jews in America, tend not to use Hebrew orthography.
In my fieldwork in the US, where literacy rates in general are extremely
high, I've only seen this language written in English script. However,
Hebrew/Aramaic loan words are often inserted in Hebrew characters. I've
seen this many times in handwriting by both men and women, as well as in
printed materials, although loan words are also often written in English
letters. I've never seen English-origin words written in Hebrew letters
within Jewish English, although this is common in place names on the
Hebrew side of wedding invitations and in the English-origin loanwords
within American Yiddish. I'm curious if other contemporary Jewish
languages are written in Hebrew letters. What about the contemporary
Jewish varieties of French and Spanish? I'd be surprised if they did use
Hebrew orthography, given the high literacy rates in the countries where
they are spoken. Of course, Yiddish is still written in Hebrew letters in
the US and elsewhere.


Date: Thu, 14 Feb 2002 11:34 -0500
From: George Jochnowitz <jochnowitz @>
Subject: random thoughts

Here are some unconnected thoughts provoked by the fascinating discussions
on alphabets and the survival of Jewish languages initiated by James Ward.
If some of you have heard some of this before, I apologize for being

In the late days of the Ottoman Empire, many Jews had switched from Ladino
to French. The use of Turkish among Jews living in Turkey today postdates
the Ottoman Empire.

After many centuries of being written in the Hebrew alphabet, Ladino is now
written in Latin characters in Israel.

In parts of Europe where the local language and the official language were
the same (Germany, Hungary, Italy, Holland etc.), Jewish languages tended to
disappear. In the Russian Empire, where the official language was Russian
and the local languages were Ukrainian, Belarusan, Lithuanian, etc., Yiddish
survived, as it did in those parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire where the
local language was neither German nor Hungarian. During the 20 years
between World Wars I and II, about a third of the Jews in Poland, my father
among them, switched to Polish because Polish was now the language of both
the neighbors and the government.

The Hui people of China (Chinese-speaking Muslims) have lost the ability to
write Chinese using Arabic characters, but I saw Arabic writing over the
doors of Hui residences when I lived in Baoding.

One of the ways in which Marxism resembles religion is that the writing
system changes after the doctrine of the country changes. In the Soviet
Union, Yiddish was written without the final form of letters and words of
Hebrew origin were spelled out phonetically. In China, many of the
traditional characters (fantizi) were replaced by simplified characters
(jiantizi). In Russian and Romanian, letters were removed from the
alphabet, although a + circumflex was restored in the word "Roma^nia." In
Mongolia, Cyrillic replaced the alphabet. In Inner Mongolia, which is a
province of China, Mongolian writing remains and must be used on all signs.
The Mongolian language, however, is giving way to Chinese.

The Hebrew alphabet was not restored after the Babylonian captivity. What
we now call the Hebrew alphabet is descended from an Aramaic writing system.

I once saw an account of the destruction of the Jews of Zloczow in East
Galicia written in Yiddish in the Latin alphabet spelled out according to
the Polish orthographic system.

One of my aunts wrote to my father (both were living in America) in Yiddish
using the Polish orthographic system. "Oy vey" was spelled "oj waj,"
relected Central Yiddish pronuciation. A friend and neighbor of mine has
letters from Poland written Yiddish using the German orthographic system.

Nowadays, much Yiddish correspondence is taking place over the internet,
using the YIVO system.

Catacomb inscriptions dating from the Roman Empire are often in the Greek or
Latin alphabets.

George Jochnowitz

Date: Fri, 15 Feb 2002 10:39 -0500
From: moshe cohen <mcohen1+ @>
Subject: judaeo- arabic

Hello Marc
I was very impressed by the details concerning the expulsion of Muslims
from Andalucia and Portugal.
I am looking for many time on materials about that expulsion especially in
arab or Muslim books.I have some suggestions why i did not find till know
but i am not shure.Anyway i will appreciate if you could help me to find
some materials about Judaeo- Arabic around the time of the Jews expulsion
1492=3,that because i published lately a book about Rabbi Saadia Ben
Maimon Ibn Danan from Granada(Bodleiana mauscript).I teach here in
Pittsburgh in Sabbatical year.
thank you
moshe cohen

Date: Fri, 15 Feb 2002 22:49 +0100
From: Marc Kiwitt <mkiwitt @>
Subject: Re: judaeo- arabic

Hello Moshe,

> Anyway i will appreciate if you could help me to find some materials
> about Judaeo- Arabic around the time of the Jews expulsion 1492=3

I am not sure if I am the right person to help you, as I don't know much
about Judeo-Arabic (my areas are Judeo-French and Romance languages in
general). I don't know any specific studies about Judeo-Arabic in 15th
century Spain, only a few general works about Spanish Arabic and
Judeo-Arabic, but I suspect you will already know most (or perhaps all) of
them. Anyway, here are the titles:

1. Spanish Arabic (including Judeo-Arabic on the Iberian peninsula):

- Federico Corriente, A Grammatical Sketch of the Spanish Arabic Dialect
 Bundle, Madrid: Instituto Hispano-Arabe de Cultura 1977.
- Federico Corriente, Arabe andalusí y lenguas romances, Madrid: MAPFRE
- Federico Corriente, A Dictionary of Andalusi Arabic, Leiden: Brill
- Reinhard Kiesler, Kleines vergleichendes Wörterbuch der Arabismen im
 Iberoromanischen und Italienischen, Tübingen: Francke 1994 [this is
 a dictionary of Arabic loan-words in Romance languages, but it
 includes a very useful introductory chapter about the linguistic
 situation in Spain and Sicily under the Muslim rule].
- Josep M. Solà-Solé, Sobre árabes, judíos y marranos y su impacto en la
 lengua y literatura españolas, Barcelona: Puvill 1983.
- Arnald Steiger, Contribución a la fonética del hispano-árabe y de los
 arabismos en el ibero-románico y el siciliano, Madrid: Hernando 1932.

2. Medieval Judeo-Arabic in general:

- Joshua Blau, Die arabischen Dialekte der Juden des Mittelalters im
 Spiegel der jüdisch-arabischen Texte, in: Orbis 7/1958, 159-167.
- Joshua Blau, Medieval Judeo-Arabic, in: Herbert Paper (ed.), Jewish
 Languages. Theme and Variations. Proceedings of Regional Conferences
 of the Association for Jewish Studies Held at the University of
 Michigan and New York University in March-April, Cambridge (Mass.):
 Association for Jewish Studies 1978, 121-131.
- Joshua Blau, Das frühe Neuarabisch in mittelarabischen Texten, in:
 Wolfdietrich Fischer (ed.), Grundriß der Arabischen Philologie. Band
 I: Sprachwissenschaft, Wiesbaden: Reichert 1988, 96-109.
- Joshua Blau, Studies in Middle Arabic and its Judaeo-Arabic Variety,
 Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1988.
- Joshua Blau, Diqduq ha-Aravit ha-Yehudit shel Yeme ha-Benayim, 2nd
 edition, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 1990.
- Joshua Blau, The Emergence and Linguistic Background of Judaeo-Arabic.
 A Study of the Origins of Middle Arabic, 3rd edition, Jerusalem: Ben
 Zvi Institute 1999.
- Israel Friedländer, Der Sprachgebrauch des Maimonides. Ein
 lexikalischer und grammatischer Beitrag zur Kenntnis des
 Mittelarabischen, Frankfurt: J. Kauffmann 1902.
- Israel Friedländer, Die arabische Sprache des Maimonides, in: W.
 Bacher et al. (eds.), Moses ben Maimon. Sein Leben, seine Werke und
 sein Einfluss, volume 1, Leipzig : G. Fock 1908, 421-428.
- Moritz Steinschneider, Die arabische Literatur der Juden. Ein Beitrag
 zur Literaturgeschichte, großentheils aus handschriftlichen Quellen,
 Frankfurt am Main: Kauffmann 1902 (reprint Hildesheim: Olms 1986).

That's all I can think of. Maybe you can find something about your topic
in the bibliographies of these works. I am sure other list members will
be able to give you more specific bibliographical indications than I.

Best regards

Marc Kiwitt

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 09:25 -0500
From: Elaine Rebecca Miller <forerm @>
Subject: Call for Papers: MLA 2002

MLA 2002
Dec. 27-30, 2002
New York City

Sephardic Studies Discussion Group
Title: Judeo-Iberian Languages, Linguistics, and/or Literatures of the

How the Sephardic Diasporas shaped Iberian languages (oral/written) of the
time of the expulsions, including Aragon, Castile, Catalonia, Portugal.
One-page abstract, brief bibliography, vita by 16 March.

Presenters must be MLA members by April 1, 2002

Send inquiries and abstracts to:
Elaine R. Miller
Dept. of Modern and Classical Languages
Georgia State University
Atlanta, GA 30303
emiller3 @

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 09:53 -0800
From: Sarah Bunin Benor <sbenor @>
Subject: Digitized Purim Sounds online from National Sound Archives (fwd)

This website includes songs in Judeo-Italian and Judeo-Spanish, as well as
megilla reading traditions from around the world. Enjoy!



> The Jewish National and University Library (JNUL) is happy to announce
> the Internet accessibility of a third sample of digitized music from
> its National Sound Archives. This selection includes both piyyutim and
> reading of the initial verses of the Book of Esther as recorded from a
> variety of Jewish communities and in various Jewish languages.
> The recordings can be accessed via the JNUL site at:
> The National Sound Archives at the JNUL contain more than 7000 hours
> of recorded music representing all Jewish and Israeli communities. The
> entire archive is now being systematically digitized which will insure
> both preservation of the materials and better access for researchers.
> The digitization of the National Sound Archives is part of the JNUL's
> David and Fela Shapell Family Digitization Project.
> Hag Purim sameah.
> Elhanan
> Elhanan Adler
> Director, MALMAD - Israel Center for Digital Information Services
> Coordinator, Israel Inter-University Library Network
> c/o Jewish National and University Library
> P.O.B. 34165, Jerusalem 91341, Israel
> Email: elhanan @
> Tel.: 972-2-6585005, FAX: 972-2-6511771, Home tel.: 972-2-6515977
> Mobile tel.: 972-58-505307

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 16:49 -0500
From: moshe cohen <mcohen1+ @>
Subject: Judeo- ARABIC 15-16 CENTURY

my name is moshe cohen,in sabbatical year at the university of Pittsburgh
i wonder if you can circulate among the Jewish -Language list the fact that
i am looking for manuscripts in Judeo- Arabic from the period of the
expulson of Jews .Also, if there are any referenses,articles ,books about
the expulsion of the Muslims from Andalucia,numbers ,locations etc..My book
about Rabbi Saadia Ibn Danan's manuscript Sefer-Hasharashim was published
thank you
moshe cohen

Date: Mon, 18 Feb 2002 18:37 -0800
From: James Ward <jamesward @>
Subject: Fwd: NEW: Handbook of Language Variation (ed. P. Trudgill et al)

Begin forwarded message:

> From: J L Speranza <jls @>
> Date: Mon Feb 18, 2002 09:29:18 AM US/Pacific
> To: Multiple recipients of list EDIE-CECTAL <edie-cectal @>
> Subject: NEW: Handbook of Language Variation (ed. P. Trudgill et al)
> Reply-To: edie-cectal @
> From LINGUIST List: Vol-13-437. Feb 17 2002. ISSN: 1068-4875.
> Home Page:
> The Handbook of Language Variation and Change
> Edited by J.K. Chambers
> Peter Trudgill
> Natalie Schilling-Estes
> The Handbook of Language Variation and Change, written by a
> distinguished international roster of contributors, reflects the
> vitality and growth of the discipline in its multifaceted pursuits. It
> is a convenient, hand-held repository of the essential knowledge about
> the study of language variation and change.
> The book begins with an examination of the methodologies employed by
> linguists working in linguistic variation and change, and then
> addresses the levels of linguistic structure that have been the main
> foci of work in the field. The volume presents views of linguistic
> variation in the diverse contexts that give it meaning and
> significance, across generations, social strata, and domains of
> interaction. It further covers variation through geographical space,
> and language and dialect contact from a variationist perspective,
> while also considering the implications that research in different
> types of societies may have for work in the field.
> Each section begins with an introduction by the editors which sets out
> the boundaries of the field and places each of the chapters in
> perspective. This Handbook allows the next generation of academics to
> perpetuate all of these fields of study and explore them with the kind
> of depth unimaginable to their predecessors.
> Contents:
> List of Contributors. Preface.
> J. K. Chambers
> Studying Language Variation: An Informal Epistemology
> Part I: Methodologies:
> Field Methods:
> Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes
> 1. Entering the Community: Field Work: Crawford Feagin
> 2. Language with an Attitude: Dennis Preston
> 3. Investigating Variation and Change in Written Documents: Edgar W.
> Schneider
> 4. Inferring Variation and Change from Public Corpora: Laurie Bauer
> Evaluation:
> Introduction: J.K. Chambers
> 5. The Quantitative Paradigm: Robert Bayley
> 6. Implicational Scales: John R. Rickford
> 7. Instrumental Phonetics: Erik R. Thomas
> Part II: Linguistic Structure:
> Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes
> 8. Variation and Phonological Theory: Arto Anttila
> 9. Investigating Chain Shifts and Mergers: Matthew Gordon }
> 10. Variation and Syntactic Theory: Alison Henry
> 11. Discourse Variation: Ronald Macaulay
> Part III: Social Factors:
> Time:
> Introduction: Natalie Schilling-Estes
> 12. Real and Apparent Time: Guy Bailey
> 13. Child Language Variation: Julie Roberts
> 14. Patterns of Variation, Including Change:
> Social Differentiation:
> Introduction: Peter Trudgill
> 15. Investigating Stylistic Variation: Natalie Schilling-Estes
> 16. Social Class: Sharon Ash
> 17. Sex and Gender in Variationist Research: Jenny Cheshire (Queen Mary
> and Westfield College, University of London, England).
> 18. Ethnicity: Carmen Fought
> Domains:
> Introduction: Peter Trudgill
> 19. Language and Identity: Norma Mendoza-Denton
> 20. The Family: Kirk Hazen
> 21. Communities of Practice: Miriam Meyerhoff
> 22. Social Networks: Lesley Milroy
> 23. The Speech Community: Peter L. Patrick (Essex University, England).
> Part IV: Contact:
> Introduction: Peter Trudgill
> 24. Space and Spatial Diffusion: David Britain (Essex University,
> England).
> 25. Linguistic Outcomes of Language Contact: Gillian Sankoff
> 26. Koineization and Accommodation: Paul Kerswill (Reading University,
> England).
> Part V: Language and Societies:
> Introduction: J.K. Chambers
> 27. Linguistic and Social Typology: Peter Trudgill
> 28. Comparative Sociolinguistics: Sali Tagliamonte (University of York,
> England).
> 29. Language Death and Dying: Walt Wolfram
> Index. HB: 0-631-21803-3. 807 pp / November 2001
> ==
> J L Speranza, Esq
> Country Town
> St Michael's Hall Suite 5/8
> Calle 58, No 611 Calle Arenales 2021
> La Plata CP 1900 Recoleta CP 1124
> Tel 00541148241050 Tel 00542214257817
> BUENOS AIRES, Argentina
> Telefax 00542214259205
> jls @

Date: Tue, 19 Feb 2002 22:48 -0800
From: James Ward <jamesward @>
Subject: book from SOTA

Hello everybody!

Perhaps I should have forwarded the whole list of the three new books,
but it's relatively long, and this book is the one that inspired me to
send notice of its existence. If anyone would like the whole mailing,
I can send it individually.

And incidentally, my silence does not mean that I don't plan to
continue discussion of the script issues. I have been given a lot to
think about, and I am still thinking! Thank you all again for such
stimulating responses.


Studies on Turkish Jewish Relations Through the Ages
Edited by Mehmet Tütüncü
ISBN 90-804409-4-9
Published and distributed by SOTA, Haarlem 2001
approx. 350 pages, with 12 plates, documents (facsimiles), index,


From the first meeting in the start of the dark Middle ages where the
Turkish Khazar Kaghans converted to Judaism into modern times Turks and
Jews have enjoyed periods of remarkable close ties. These many faceted
relations is the subject of the studies in these book. These relations
were always a contrast to the experience of Jews in Western Europe.

In Five Chapters of these books five facets of Turkish Jewish interactions
are explored:

Mehmet Tütüncü Introduction 9

Part 1 Khazar Myth and Realities
Peter B. GOLDEN Khazars 15
Benjamin BRAUDE Myths and Realities of Turkish-Jewish Contacts 29

Part 2 Karaims and Crimea
Ananiasz ZAJACZKOWSKI Karaims: Origin and History (Ethnogenesis) 51
Moshe GAMMER The Karaites of Crimea during the Crimean War: A French Report
Dan SHAPIRA A Karaim Poem in Crimean-Tatar from Mangup: a Source for
Jewish-Turkish History (Judaeo-Turcica III) 81

Part 3: Ottoman Empire
Wout van BEKKUM Jews in the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey 101
Bülent ÖZDEMIR The Jews of Salonica and the Reforms 109
Mahir SAUL The Mother Tongue of the Polyglot, Cosmopolitism and nationalism
Among the Sepharadim of Istanbul 131
Yitzchak KEREM Jewish-Turkish Muslim Relations in the Greek Peninsula
during the 19th and early 20th Centuries 171
Ali GÜLER (Turkish-Jewish relations in the light of some Archive
Documents about the Last Grand-Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire Hayim Nahum
Efendi) (article in Turkish) 185
Salahi R. SONYEL Turco-Jewish relations During the First World war and
Turkey's war of Liberation 225

Part 4: Sabbatean Experience
Gad NASSI Exploring the Pagan, Jewish and Ottoman Roots of the ìSabbatean
Lamb Festivalî 241
Gad NASSI Three Sabbatean Objects 261
M. Avrum EHRLICH Sabbatean Messianism as Proto-Secularism: Examples in
Modern Turkey and Zionism 273

Part 5: World WAR II
Stanford J. SHAW Turkey and the Jews of Europe during World war II 301
Antero LEITZINGER Lessons from Integration of Aliens in Finland (1917-1944)



The price is $ 45 + 10
postage. For ordering please fill the form below and
e-mail to <sota @>
Tel/fax:: + 31 23 5292883

more info about the book:



I would like to order _ copie(s) Turkish Jewish Encounters
I would like to order _ copie(s) REFORM MOVEMENTS AND REVOLUTIONS IN
I would like to order _ copie(s) PAX OTTOMANA Studies in Memoriam
Nejat Goyunc
Prices: Turkish Jeiwsh Encounters USD 45

Methods of payment:
( ) Cash by post
( ) American Express/Eurocard/Mastercard, Fill in further
( ) Bank Account 6293434 on the name of SOTA (Stichting Onderzoek
Turkestan) Postbus 9642, 2003 LP Haarlem Netherlands, please add 10 Dollars
bank costs.
The book will be sent postage paid to your adress after receiving of your
payment: Delivery 3 to 5 weeks
Date: ________________________________ Name:_________________________________
Adres: _______________________________ ______________________________________
Telephone:____________________________ e-mail:____________
( ) Please debit my credit card: for an amount of: US Dollars: ______
Credit card:____________________ Number ______________________
Expiry Date: ___________________ Signature: __________________
( ) I have paid via bank account next amount USD:________
Please fax this to next adress telephone/fax numbers: SOTA
Tel/fax:: + 31 23 5292883
or mail to
P.O. box 9642 2003 LP Haarlem Netherlands
e-mail for further information:

P.O. box
9642 2003 LP

Date: Mon, 25 Feb 2002 11:50 +0100
From: Marion Aptroot <aptroot @>
Subject: Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany, 23-25 September 2002

Fifth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany
23-25 September 2002

The Fifth Symposium for Yiddish Studies in Germany will be held September
23-25 at the Heinrich Heine University in Duesseldorf. This annual Yiddish
Symposium is organized alternately by the Yiddish programs at the
universities of Trier and Duesseldorf and is intended to offer students and
scholars the possibility to present their research, exchange ideas and put
forward questions for discussion.

We invite you to submit abstracts for 20 min. papers until June 1, 2002.
Presentations can be held in Yiddish or German.

As usual, we have decided not to devote the symposium to a single topic in
order not to exclude any of the fields of research within Yiddish Studies.
Interdisciplinary papers with a connection to Yiddish Studies is welcome.

The symposium is open to all those interested in Yiddish Studies. There is
no conference fee. We do ask participants to register as soon as possible
at the address below.

Regularly updated information can be found under:
We are also happy to answer questions by mail, fax or e-mail.

Simon Neuberg (University of Trier) and Marion Aptroot (University of

Abteilung fuer Jiddische Kultur, Sprache und Literatur
Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf
Universitaetsstr.1 / Gebaeude 23.03
40225 Duesseldorf
Fax: +49-211-81-12027
e-mail: jiddisch @