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(See the NOTES for information about these languages, dictionaries, and types of people.)
Languages of origin
Regions in which the word is used
Types of people who tend to use the word
- Religious: Jews who are engaged in religious observance and have some Jewish education
- Orthodox: Jews who identify as Orthodox and observe halacha (Jewish law)
- Organizations: People involved in a professional or volunteer capacity with Jewish nonprofit organizations
- Jews: Jews of diverse religious backgrounds and organizational involvements
- Camp: Jews who attend or work at a Jewish overnight summer camp
- Israel: Diaspora Jews who feel connected to Israel and have spent time there
- Ethnic: Jews whose Jewish identity is primarily ethnic
- Older: Jews who are middle-aged and older
- Younger: Jews in their 30s or younger
- Ashkenazim: Jews with Ashkenazi heritage
- Sephardim: Jews with Sephardi or Mizrahi heritage
- Syrian: Jews with recent ancestry in Syria
- Persian: Jews with recent ancestry in Iran
- Russian: Jews with recent Russian-speaking ancestry in Russia
- Non-Jews: (words that have spread outside of Jewish networks)
Dictionaries in which the word appears
- The New Joys of Yiddish, by Leo Rosten and Lawrence Bush (New York, 2003).
- Yiddish and English: A Century of Yiddish in America, by Sol Steinmetz (Tuscaloosa, 1986).
- The Joys of Hebrew, by Lewis Glinert (New York, 1992).
- Frumspeak: The First Dictionary of Yeshivish, by Chaim Weiser (Northvale, 1995).
- The JPS Dictionary of Jewish Words, by Joyce Eisenberg and Ellen Scolnic, (Philadelphia, 2001)
- Dictionary of Jewish Usage: A Guide to the Use of Jewish Terms, by Sol Steinmetz (Lanham, MD, 2005).
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